České dráhy (English: Czech Railways), often shortened to ČD, is the major railway operator in the Czech Republic providing regional and long-distance services.
The company was established in 1993, after the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, as a successor of the Czechoslovak State Railways. It is a member of the International Railway Union (UIC Country Code for the Czech Republic is 54), Community of European Railways and the Organization for Railway Cooperation (Asia and Europe). With twenty-four thousand employees ČD Group is the fifth largest Czech company by the number of employees.
Until 1 July 2008, České dráhy was the biggest employer in the Czech Republic. After experiencing regular losses and requiring government subsidy, the railway reported its first ever profit in 2007[ while still receiving government subsidy. Attempts to make it more efficient are currently ongoing and a recent plan to move passenger transport to an independent subsidiary was approved by the Czech government in January 2008.
ČD operates trains; fixed infrastructure (such as tracks) is managed by SŽDC. In December 2010, the Czech government proposed bringing SŽDC and ČD together in a single holding company. The government has also changed the subsidy available to ČD and SŽDC.